Wednesday, 20 May 2020

CAN OR WILL THE UK BECOME 100% CARBON FREE?


       THIS QUESTION ARRIVED FROM A STUDENT AND ASKED A VERY BASIC QUESTION BUT HAS A VERY COMPLICATED ANSWER.

 CAN THE UK BECOME 100% CARBON FREE ?,     LETS ASSUME WE ARE TALKING ABOUT JUST ENERGY, ITS PRODUCTION AND USE.   

TECHNICALLY YES, THE UK HAS A VERY LARGE REGION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES ALREADY BEING HARVESTED, WIND, SOLAR, BIOMASS, GROUND SOURCE (GEOTHERMAL) , WITHOUT INCLUDING NUCLEAR IN THE MIX. THIS IS BEFORE THE OTHER MAJOR MARINE RENEWABLE RESOURCES SUCH AS WAVE, TIDAL RANGE AND TIDAL STREAM ARE INCLUDED.

WHAT IS REQUIRED TO REACH 100% CARBON FREE ?,  (ENERGY WISE)

THE MOST MAJOR CHANGE REQUIRED TO MAKE THIS HAPPEN IS A COMPLETE CHANGE IS GOVERNMENT AND PRESENT ENERGY MARKET PROVIDERS TO USE WHAT REMAINS OF THE PRESENT FOSSIL FUEL RUN DOWN PERIOD TO AGREE AND BUILD THE NEW TOTALLY RENEWABLE AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS.
 WHILE THE PRESENT WIND, SOLAR AND UP AND RUNNING OTHERS WILL CONTINUE TO EXPAND, IT IS THE VAST MARINE ENERGY RESOURCES  THAT WILL SUPPLY THE BULK OF THE UK'S ENERGY NEEDS AND PROBABLY EXPORT A GREAT DEAL TO THE EUROPEAN MAIN LAND AS WELL.
IT WILL REQUIRE THE FOUR MAJOR PLAYERS, GOVERNMENT, MARINE ENERGY DEVELOPERS, ENVIRONMENTAL COMMUNITY AND THE FISHING COMMUNITY TO WORK TOGETHER.
    IT WILL TAKE ALL FOUR OF THESE LARGE  ORGANISATION'S    BOTH PLAN AND BUILD THE ENERGY SYSTEMS AND ALSO TO OVERCOME THE NORMAL INBUILT RELUCTANCE TO CHANGE, THERE WILL BE A GREAT DEAL OF CHANGE.

THE MARINE ENERGY DEVELOPERS WILL NEED TO DESIGN ENERGY SYSTEMS THAT MATCH THE NATIONS NEEDS WHILE PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, THE ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANISATION'S WILL NEED TO ADVISE AND GUIDE THE DEVELOPERS  AS TO THE BEST WAYS TO BUILD AND EXPAND THE ENERGY HARVESTING AREAS WHILE ALLOWING THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT TO THRIVE AND GROWTH,  THE  FISHING  COMMUNITY, AS WILL AS ADVISING HOW ENERGY FARMS CAN DESIGNED AND SO  HARVESTED FOR FOOD AND WELL AS ENERGY, THEY WILL ALSO BE THE GUARDIANS OF THE SEAS, THAT WILL BE SO IMPORTANT TO THE NATION.
   THE GOVERNMENT WILL HAVE THE HARDEST JOB, THEY MUST DIRECT THE DIFFERENT AGENCIES THAT  CONTROL MUST ISSUES EFFECTING THE MARINE ENVIROMENT, SUCH AS CROWN ESTATES,  THE ENVIROMENT AGENCY, M.M.O AND MANY OTHERS TO RELEASE THEIR GRIP TO A OVER RIDING AGENCY THAT HAS PUBLIC, BUSINESS AS WELL AS GOVERNMENT INPUT TO MANAGE THIS NEW DIRECTION FOR THE GOOD OF THE COUNTRY.

WILL IT HAPPEN ?      NO, OR VERY UNLIKELY. THE PRESENT GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS AND THE OUT REACHING POWER OF SOME OF THE GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND ENVIRONMENT ORGANISATION ARE VERY UNLIKELY TO MOVE FORWARD FOR THE COMMON GOOD.
  
ONLY TIME AND CLIMATE CHANGE WILL TELL.


A personal input

Paul Hales
Director
Hales Water Turbines Ltd
20th May 2020



 

Monday, 13 April 2020

QUESTIONS ARISING FROM LAST TIDAL TURBINE POST



Several questions have be emailed to Hales Water Turbines Ltd regarding the last Blog Post. 

 The first of several was the following :-

What is the potential amounts of tidal energy contained within the territorial waters of each country within the continental shelf, if low-velocity tidal areas were fully exploited to reduced the effects of Climate Change ?.
First of all, lets assume that no restrictions to each national territorial waters are in place, then very large areas, thousands of square kilometres are with tidal flows of 1.0 m/s or more.  With the use of suitable venturi acting systems, which basically are just a method of funnelling the water flows with a narrower entry mouth of the turbines which greatly increases the energy potential to extract, also the venturi areas can act as marine nurseries for most species in that area.
Most low-velocity  reaction type tidal turbines have a vertical output shaft so modular construction into a tidal fence energy farm, these could also be linked up with off-shore wind  turbines and wave generators and the renewable energy sent to shore through a common cable. In future years these Marine Energy farms will be set to produce Hydrogen and again piped ashore.


Under these conditions,
Both the UK and Republic of Ireland could supply 100% plus of national grid requirements.
France approx 80%, Belgium and Holland 75 - 80%, Germany 60% , Norway 75 %, Denmark 85 -90 % Portugal 60%, Spain  45%.
Spatial information on all water velocities and depths within the European continental shelf  area are held by national naval and marine departments and much can also be found on the internet.

A personal  input
Paul Hales
Director
Hales Water Turbines Ltd
11th April 2020

Monday, 30 March 2020

BRINGING REACTION TIDAL ENERGY TOGETHER



           For more than 20 years directors and engineers from Hales Energy and Hales Water Turbines have researched and developed more modern versions of the reaction turbine for tidal harvesting of renewable energy.
The principles of Reaction turbines are greatly illustrated in the 19th century as the early primary energy system to drive the newly invented cotton jenny frames, powered by water flows and start the Industrial Revolution and the factory system, until coal fired steam engines become used.
The modern world is facing the challenge to move away from fossil based energy systems, both due to cost and dwindling fossil resources, also, the now agreed global effect it has on Climate Change.





The new world, that will arrive after the present global Viral Pandemic has run it's course, will, it is hoped, then the look to the next great global challenge, to provide useable clean renewable energy without pollution and danger.
The question of nuclear power is still open, with the memory of Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear contamination and the extreme terrorist attack threat as shown on the Saudi Arabia Oil installation attack by missiles.
To expand clean and predictable forms of renewable energy, enough to fill the UK's expanding needs we need to expand our vision and focus.

At a meeting held with the UK government's Minister of Sate for Business, Energy & Clean Growth on the 25th February 2020,, a Hales Water Turbine director gave a presentation and provided site tested data to the Minister and his expert team as to the potential of LVWT (low-velocity water turbines) such as the Hales vertical axis ducted tidal turbine, that can be configured in a Tidal Fence arrangement to produce up to 286 MW of electricity per square kilometer in flow areas such as the Severn Estuary.





Hales Water Turbines is now in talks with the UK government to find the best way forward to bring together the four items needed to allow the UK to exploit this unlimited amount of renewable energy.
(1) The engineering requirements are known and can be improved and expanded with further R&D.
(2) The government needs to control of the UK's tidal resource through new arrangements with Crown Estates, National Grid, Environment Agency, MMO and the several other agencies dealing with environmental control to prevent any bottle necks to development.
(3) The UK's fishing industry, lead by the NFFO, SFF , IFCA and others,  will greatly benefit from the deployment of Tidal Stream Energy farms, they can be the guardians of the sites as well as with sensible planning in the design and deployment, be able to manage and harvest the marine life that will use the energy farms as protected breeding grounds, this is especially useful for crustaceans and coastal fish stocks.
(4) The final items is the expansion of Marine Conservation Areas that can be built into the Marine Tidal Energy Farm and  preserve the UK waters for future generations, collaboration between, government, tidal industry, the UK fishermen and conservation groups can lead to an clean renewable energy supply that can fore fill ALL the UK energy needs and likely, if the government were to ring fence some of the revenue generated by licensing and ownership of this tidal industry, will also greatly reduce the national debt for the future generations.

Personal statement by:
Paul Hales
Director
Hales Water Turbines Ltd
30th March 2020.

Tuesday, 3 March 2020

SUCCESSFUL MEETING WITH ENERGY MINISTER


  WHILE IT IS NOT NORMAL FOR A MINISTER OF STATE IN THE UK TO AGREE TO A MEETING AFTER BEING CHALLENGED FACE TO FACE WHILE GIVING AT SPEECH DURING A CONSERVATIVE PARTY DINNER,   HOWEVER  MINISTER KWARTENG MP ALLOWED  A DIRECTOR FROM HALES WATER TURBINES LTD THIS CHANCE ON 25TH FEBRUARY 2020.

   THE MEETING ALLOWED RODNEY BROMFIELD, DIRECTOR OF HWT AND ALSO A SENIOR LECTURER AT THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, KINGSTON UNIVERSITY, TO PROVIDE A SHORT POWER POINT  PRESENTATION AND ANSWER QUESTIONS TO THE MINISTER AND HIS TEAM.

 THE INFORMATION PROVIDED GAINED A GREAT DEAL OF INTEREST FROM THE MINISTER AND HIS TEAM INTO THE POTENTIAL OF LOW-VELOCITY TIDAL STREAM POWER GENERATION BY THE HALES TYPE TURBINES AND ALSO THE POTENTIAL TO GETTING THE UK TO A ZERO CARBON TARGET,  WHICH CAN ONLY BE REACHED BY EXPANDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE ENERGY SYSTEMS SUCH AS WAVE, TIDAL, OFF-SHORE WIND AND THERMAL CONVERSION, POSSIBLY IN LARGE ENERGY HUBS WELL OFF-SHORE, ALL POSSIBLE IN THE THOUSANDS OF SQUARE KILOMETRES OF EEZ  WHICH REVERT TO UK CONTROL IN 2021.

HWT WILL NOW HOPE TO EXPAND  UK GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN BRINGING THIS VAST RENEWABLE RESOURCE FORWARD.

PAUL HALES
DIRECTOR
HALES WATER TURBINES LTD.

Saturday, 25 January 2020

ENERGY MINNISTER AGREES TO MEETING WITH HALES WATER TURBINES


      

 The Minister of State for Business, Energy and Clean Growth, Kwasi Kwarteng MP  has kindly agreed to hold a meeting with reprsentatives of Hales Water Turbines Ltd on the Tuesday 25th February 2020 to discuss the potential of Tidal Stream Turbines for the UK and how specialised Reaction type tidal turbines such as the patented Hales Turbine can greatly expand the large amount of shallow coastal waters around the UK coasts.  While Tidal Stream turbine companies in the EU have followed this form of turbine development, such as being developed in Holland.   The Feb meeting will be attended by Rodney Bromfield, the academic director of Hales Water Turbines Ltd , who will present out turbine details and the vast potential to the UK should the government still wish to move the UK towards a Carbon Neutral position in the future.

 

Friday, 10 January 2020

HOW A LARGE HALES TURBINE DEPLOYMENT WILL WORK



UK COASTAL POWER GENERATION


The world has, at last, woken up to the need to generate clean energy, and investigations are still continuing into the full effects on the atmosphere of the burning of fossil fuels. In every country, government and industry must now ensure that the maximum advantage is taken of all forms of renewable energy resources that can be found within its national boundaries.
The UK has the world's greatest tidal resources - mainly because its position on the European continental shelf provides workable depths of water. In addition, its proximity to the European mainland and Ireland causes concentrated flows at useable velocities during its lunar tidal cycles.
Some members of the public and the government do understand the basic idea behind tidal flow generators, but the devices are generally regarded as nothing more than waterproof versions of a wind turbine. Consequently, that is the direction taken by most designers, and several R&D programmes have involved millions of pounds being spent on the development of large tidal flow generators of that style. However, these high-precision LIFT-type propeller-style turbines are not ideal for meeting the challenges posed by the harsh underwater environment and such devices can be deployed at only a limited number of locations for several simple reasons.

(a) To operate effectively, they need very smooth waterflows.

(b) The water needs to flow faster than 2.0 m/s (fast walking speed).

(c) The surfaces of the blades need to remain smooth and clean.


Smooth waterflows can be found in only a narrow band of the water column - above the undulations of the seabed but also well below the action of the waves at the surface. Whereas the blades of a wind turbine can bend and flex in the air to adjust to the turbulence caused by gusts of wind, water - being incompressible - can actually shear the blades off a turbine in similar conditions underwater.
From the very first day of deployment, baby barnacle spores and other tiny marine organisms can attach themselves to the surfaces of the blades and begin to reduce the efficiency of the rotor, in much the same way as ice affects an aircraft's wing.
A ship’s propeller does not suffer from such a disadvantage, as its rotation is driven by the thrust of an engine and results in the ship’s movement through the water. A propeller-style tidal stream generator is based on the reverse of that principle, as the blades have to absorb the energy from the water and the shape of the blade helps to provide the lift that causes the rotation - just as the shape of the aircraft's wing gives the required amount of lift. For that reason, the waterflows and the surfaces of the blades need to be smooth if a good turbine efficiency and power output are to be achieved.
The UK and the rest of the world need to provide enough usable energy to continue advancing technologically, in order to cope with the steady increase in population and also improve living standards. Therefore, in addition to installing offshore wind turbines and wave energy devices, the governments of coastal nations should combine modern technology with engineering lessons from the past in order to bring the best and the most wide-ranging energy harvesting methods to the world.
The human race has been using the energy contained in flowing water for thousands of years. Even today, in many parts of the world, various styles of waterwheel are used to grind corn or raise water etc. The designs are simple, effective and inexpensive.


Let us consider a simple example of the potential of this resource.
The Severn Estuary is approximately 40 miles (64 kms) long. Its width at Cardiff is 9 miles (14 kms), and more than 100 sq kms of its area carries fast-flowing tidal currents in water having a depth of between 20 and 60 metres. Many of those tidal flows move at speeds well above 2.0 m/s.
Both the basic modular version and the Venturi version of the patented Hales Tidal Stream Turbine can be used in a standard Tidal Fence configuration. Both versions have been fully designed and tested. With the Venturi version installed, a Tidal Fence spread over one square kilometre of the estuary will produce 286MW of power.
That figure is based on the following reasoning.
(a) Tidal Flow - At a speed of 2.0 metres per second, one square metre of the flow’s cross-section area contains kinetic energy that produces 4.0 kilowatts of power.
(b) Venturi effect - The simple Venturi system used on the Hales Tidal Stream Turbine increases the speed of the flow by a factor of 1.6, so a speed of 2.0 m/s would become 3.20 m/s acting on the turbine. At that speed, one square metre produces 16.38 kilowatts of power. Adding the Venturi system to the turbine actually doubles the width of the device, so the turbines themselves occupy only half of the width of the Tidal Fence.
(c) Height of the Tidal Fence - As the tidal range is so great in the Severn Estuary, the height of the Tidal Fence should not exceed 20 metres, with the generators contained in the ballasted base.
(d) Spacing of the Tidal Fence - The Hales Tidal Stream Turbines are reaction-type devices and not significantly affected by turbulence, so the Tidal Fence lines can safely be installed only 200 metres apart. That distance allows ample time and space for the water’s energy to be replenished by the flows from beside and above the Tidal Fence. Furthermore, the non-rotational form of the turbine's wake enables the turbines to extend all the way down to the estuary floor. Such an arrangement enables the installation of five complete Tidal Fence lines per square kilometre of the estuary.
(e) Hales Turbine Efficiency - In its simplest form, the Hales Tidal Stream Turbine is 35% efficient at speeds down to 1.0 m/s.

Calculation of the Power Output
Per Tidal Fence line 1km wide, the turbine capture-area width = 500m
[That is explained in part (b) Venturi effect.]
The height of the Tidal Fence line is 20m, so:
Total turbine capture-area per line = 500 x 20 = 10,000 sq metres, so:
Total turbine capture-area for 5 Tidal Fence lines = 50,000 sq metres
1 square metre of the flow produces 16.38 kilowatts of power.
[That is explained in part (b) Venturi effect.]
Owing to the efficiency figure, the turbine captures 35% of that power.
So, the total power produced by a Tidal Fence spread over 1 sq km
= (50,000 x 16.38 x 0.35) kilowatts = (50 x 16.38 x 0.35) megawatts
= 286.65 megawatts, so:
286MW is the power produced per sq km of Tidal Fence block.