Friday, 10 January 2020

HOW A LARGE HALES TURBINE DEPLOYMENT WILL WORK



UK COASTAL POWER GENERATION


The world has, at last, woken up to the need to generate clean energy, and investigations are still continuing into the full effects on the atmosphere of the burning of fossil fuels. In every country, government and industry must now ensure that the maximum advantage is taken of all forms of renewable energy resources that can be found within its national boundaries.
The UK has the world's greatest tidal resources - mainly because its position on the European continental shelf provides workable depths of water. In addition, its proximity to the European mainland and Ireland causes concentrated flows at useable velocities during its lunar tidal cycles.
Some members of the public and the government do understand the basic idea behind tidal flow generators, but the devices are generally regarded as nothing more than waterproof versions of a wind turbine. Consequently, that is the direction taken by most designers, and several R&D programmes have involved millions of pounds being spent on the development of large tidal flow generators of that style. However, these high-precision LIFT-type propeller-style turbines are not ideal for meeting the challenges posed by the harsh underwater environment and such devices can be deployed at only a limited number of locations for several simple reasons.

(a) To operate effectively, they need very smooth waterflows.

(b) The water needs to flow faster than 2.0 m/s (fast walking speed).

(c) The surfaces of the blades need to remain smooth and clean.


Smooth waterflows can be found in only a narrow band of the water column - above the undulations of the seabed but also well below the action of the waves at the surface. Whereas the blades of a wind turbine can bend and flex in the air to adjust to the turbulence caused by gusts of wind, water - being incompressible - can actually shear the blades off a turbine in similar conditions underwater.
From the very first day of deployment, baby barnacle spores and other tiny marine organisms can attach themselves to the surfaces of the blades and begin to reduce the efficiency of the rotor, in much the same way as ice affects an aircraft's wing.
A ship’s propeller does not suffer from such a disadvantage, as its rotation is driven by the thrust of an engine and results in the ship’s movement through the water. A propeller-style tidal stream generator is based on the reverse of that principle, as the blades have to absorb the energy from the water and the shape of the blade helps to provide the lift that causes the rotation - just as the shape of the aircraft's wing gives the required amount of lift. For that reason, the waterflows and the surfaces of the blades need to be smooth if a good turbine efficiency and power output are to be achieved.
The UK and the rest of the world need to provide enough usable energy to continue advancing technologically, in order to cope with the steady increase in population and also improve living standards. Therefore, in addition to installing offshore wind turbines and wave energy devices, the governments of coastal nations should combine modern technology with engineering lessons from the past in order to bring the best and the most wide-ranging energy harvesting methods to the world.
The human race has been using the energy contained in flowing water for thousands of years. Even today, in many parts of the world, various styles of waterwheel are used to grind corn or raise water etc. The designs are simple, effective and inexpensive.


Let us consider a simple example of the potential of this resource.
The Severn Estuary is approximately 40 miles (64 kms) long. Its width at Cardiff is 9 miles (14 kms), and more than 100 sq kms of its area carries fast-flowing tidal currents in water having a depth of between 20 and 60 metres. Many of those tidal flows move at speeds well above 2.0 m/s.
Both the basic modular version and the Venturi version of the patented Hales Tidal Stream Turbine can be used in a standard Tidal Fence configuration. Both versions have been fully designed and tested. With the Venturi version installed, a Tidal Fence spread over one square kilometre of the estuary will produce 286MW of power.
That figure is based on the following reasoning.
(a) Tidal Flow - At a speed of 2.0 metres per second, one square metre of the flow’s cross-section area contains kinetic energy that produces 4.0 kilowatts of power.
(b) Venturi effect - The simple Venturi system used on the Hales Tidal Stream Turbine increases the speed of the flow by a factor of 1.6, so a speed of 2.0 m/s would become 3.20 m/s acting on the turbine. At that speed, one square metre produces 16.38 kilowatts of power. Adding the Venturi system to the turbine actually doubles the width of the device, so the turbines themselves occupy only half of the width of the Tidal Fence.
(c) Height of the Tidal Fence - As the tidal range is so great in the Severn Estuary, the height of the Tidal Fence should not exceed 20 metres, with the generators contained in the ballasted base.
(d) Spacing of the Tidal Fence - The Hales Tidal Stream Turbines are reaction-type devices and not significantly affected by turbulence, so the Tidal Fence lines can safely be installed only 200 metres apart. That distance allows ample time and space for the water’s energy to be replenished by the flows from beside and above the Tidal Fence. Furthermore, the non-rotational form of the turbine's wake enables the turbines to extend all the way down to the estuary floor. Such an arrangement enables the installation of five complete Tidal Fence lines per square kilometre of the estuary.
(e) Hales Turbine Efficiency - In its simplest form, the Hales Tidal Stream Turbine is 35% efficient at speeds down to 1.0 m/s.

Calculation of the Power Output
Per Tidal Fence line 1km wide, the turbine capture-area width = 500m
[That is explained in part (b) Venturi effect.]
The height of the Tidal Fence line is 20m, so:
Total turbine capture-area per line = 500 x 20 = 10,000 sq metres, so:
Total turbine capture-area for 5 Tidal Fence lines = 50,000 sq metres
1 square metre of the flow produces 16.38 kilowatts of power.
[That is explained in part (b) Venturi effect.]
Owing to the efficiency figure, the turbine captures 35% of that power.
So, the total power produced by a Tidal Fence spread over 1 sq km
= (50,000 x 16.38 x 0.35) kilowatts = (50 x 16.38 x 0.35) megawatts
= 286.65 megawatts, so:
286MW is the power produced per sq km of Tidal Fence block.

Sunday, 8 December 2019

OCEANS LOSING OXYGEN - WHY- AND HOW TO FIX IT



OXYGEN ENTERS THE WATER THROUGH TWO NATURAL PROCESSES .

(1) DIFFUSION FROM THE ATMOSPHERE

(2) PHOTOSYNTHESIS BY AQUATIC PLANTS.

THE MIXING OF SURFACE WATERS BY WIND AND WAVES INCREASES THE RATE AT WHICH OXYGEN FROM THE AIR CAN BE DISSOLVED OR ABSORBED INTO THE WATER.

IN COASTAL UK WATERS EACH SUMMER IS THE LOCAL OCCURRENCE OF "MAY ROT",  WHERE THE WARMING SHALLOW WATERS COMBINED WITH HIGHER NUTRIENT LEVELS CREATE A ALGAE BLOOM WHICH SOON DIES AND SINKS TO THE SEA BED AS A CHOCKING BROWN AND BAD SMELLING FILM THAT KILLS MUCH OF THE FORESHORE AQUATIC LIFE, ONLY DISPERSED BY ROUGH WEATHER.

AS THE MAJORITY OF AQUATIC LIFE IS FOUND ON THE SEA BED AND LOWER DEPTHS THEN WAYS NEED TO BE FOUND TO PREVENT OR REDUCE THIS SORT OF ANNUAL  ALGAE OCCURRENCE AND ALSO INCREASE THE OXYGEN LEVELS IN THE LOWER PARTS OF THE WATER COLUMN WHICH ARE BEING REPORTED AS DROPPING WORLD WIDE.

HOW CAN THIS BE DONE ?

THE STANDARD FISH TANK FOUND IN MANY HOMES AND PLACES SOLVES THIS ISSUE SIMPLY BY USING A AIR PUMP, DRAWING AIR FOR ABOVE THE SURFACE AND RELEASING AT THE TANK'S LOWER LEVEL.
THE COST - APART FOR THE PUMP PURCHASE IS THE ELECTRICAL POWER TO DRIVE THE PUMP.

FOR THE LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS, REQUIRED TO PUT USEFUL AMOUNTS OF OXYGEN INTO COASTAL WATERS THEN THE SOLUTION IS SIMPLE, USED THE VAST AMOUNT OF TIDAL STREAM ENERGY, WHICH FLOW FOR EIGHTEEN HOURS EACH DAY, VENTURI THE FLOWS TO CONCENTRATE THIS ENERGY TO TIDAL STREAM TURBINES THAT ARE FITTED WITH AIR PUMPS INSTEAD OF GENERATORS.

      DESIGN AND INSTALL A SUCTION PIPE WITH A SUITABLE FLOATING BUOY THAT CAN BE MADE TO PRESENT NEITHER A HAZARD OR HINDRANCE TO  SHIPPING, ALL POSSIBLE IN THE SHALLOW COASTAL WATERS OF THE UK. THE DISCHARGE WOULD BE A SIMPLE PERFORATED PIPE.

A FLY- OVER  DURING CALM DAYS WOULD CONFIRM OPERATE OF THESE UNITS AS A BUBBLE STREAM WOULD SHOW AT THE SURFACE, ALLOWING MINIMAL MAINTENANCE.

A SIMPLE LOW TECH SOLUTION.






Friday, 29 November 2019

TIDAL ENERGY ARTICLE IN DAILY EXPRESS TODAY -FRIDAY 29/11/2019


      ANYONE INTERESTED IN THE UK'S AND WORLD POTENTIAL FOR TIDAL STREAM ENERGY AND THE CHANCE TO MAKE POSITIVE ADVANCE IN REDUCING CARBON EMMISSIONS WORLD WIDE SHOULD READ A CLEAR AND POSITIVE ARTICLE IN THE NEWPAPER - DAILY EXPRESS, WRITTEN BY FREDRICK FORSYTH.

 HOPEFULLY HE IS A READER OF OUR BLOG. 





 HOPEFULLY POSSIBLE TO READ OR VIEW ON INTERNET.

Friday, 15 November 2019

3 METRES PER SECOND = 5.8 KNOTS = 6.67 MILES PER HOUR


       AFTER OUR LAST POST, SEVERAL OF OUR REGULAR POST READERS HAVE ASKED WHAT IS THE POTENTIAL OF TIDAL STREAM FLOW AT THREE METRES PER SECOND AND WHY WOULD THE MINISTER OF STATE, KWASI KWARTENG MP SAY THAT TIDAL STREAM FLOW AT THIS SPEED AND LOWER  WOULD ONLY BE SUITABLE FOR MICRO GENERATION SYSTEMS ?.

   FIRST OF ALL, IT WOULD HELP TO UNDERSTAND JUST HOW FAST 3.0 METRES PER SECOND TIDAL FLOWS ARE:-

 MANY PEOPLE CAN REMEMBER MICHAEL PHELPS, THE RECORD FREE STYLE OLYMPIC SWIMMER WHO, IN 2010  SWAM AT 6 MPH TO BREAK THE WORLD RECORD. (according to the ESPN)

  MOST PEOPLE WALK AT 4 MPH,   IMAGINE IF YOU WHERE CARRYING A CUBIC METRE OF WATER ( WHICH WOULD WEIGH A METRIC TONNE) IMAGINE THE EFFORT NEEDED,  WELL  A  SINGLE CUBIC METRE OF TIDAL FLOW WITHIN A WATER COLUMN WOULD CONTAIN 13.50 KWs OF KINETIC ENERGY!!!,

NOW IMAGINE SOMEWHERE LIKE THE PENTLAND FORTH IN SCOTLAND THAT HAS THOUSANDS OF SQUARE METRES OF WATER COLUMN IN ITS  LENGTH AND DEPTH THAT HAVE WATER FLOW SPEED UP TO 4.0 METRES PER SECOND AND ABOVE.

THE REASON THE FLOWS ARE SO FAST IN SUCH AREAS IS BECAUSE OF THE NATURAL FUNNELING EFFECT  OF A LARGER VOLUME OF WATER BEING PUSH/PULLED BY THE LUNAR GRAVITY THROUGH THE NATURAL RESTRICTION OF ISLANDS AND SUCH.

THIS VENTURI EFFECT CAN BE REPEATED EASILY WITH MODERN ENGINEERING, AS ALREADY BEING PROVEN BY TIDAL TURBINE DEVELOPER AROUND THE WORLD, BUT SADLY MISSED BY THE UK GOVERNMENT AT THIS TIME.

HALES WATER TURBINE DESIGN, USING THE SIMPLEST FORM OF VENTURI DURING TRIALS HAS A WATER FLOW ENTRY SPEED OF 1.6 TIMES, WHILE SOME TIDAL TURBINE DEVELOPERS IN AUSTRALIA CLAIM TO USE A SPECIAL VENTURI SYSTEM THAT INCREASES THE WATER FLOW INTO THE TURBINE  ABOVE 3 TIMES.

GRAVITATIONAL PULL AND GEOTHERMAL ARE THE ONLY TWO RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AVAILABLE TO THE  UK TO PROVIDE A  FULLY CLEAN ENERGY SOURCE  24/7 WITHOUT THE NEED FOR MORE NUCLEAR.
          THE RUSSIANS MANAGED TO DRILL THE EARTH'S CORE TO A DEPTH OF 6 MILES IN THE 1960's BUT THE COST WAS EXCESSIVE,   SO IF THE UK WISHED TO SEEK A CLEAN ENERGY WAY THEN LOOK TO THE SEA.

Friday, 8 November 2019

MINISTER ENDS HOPE OF UK ENERGY INDEPENDENCE



CORRESPONDENCE RECEIVED BY HALES ENERGY LIMITED SHOWS THAT THE UK GOVERNMENT POSITION ON TIDAL STREAM ENERGY IS THAT ALL WATER FLOWS LESS THAN 3.0 METERS PER SECOND ( 6.7 MILES PER HOUR) MUCH FASTER THAN WALKING SPEED, HAS NO POTENTIAL TO THE UK OTHER THAN SMALL MICRO DEPLOYMENTS.

           AS ONLY 2% OF UK TERRITORIAL WATERS CONTAIN TIDAL FLOWS GREAT THAN 3.0 M/S, PLACES SUCH AS PENTLAND FORTH, STRANGFORTH LOCH AND THE ALDERNEY RACES  ETC, 
  MEANING THE UK CAN NEVER REACH A ENERGY INDEPENDENCE WITHOUT A LARGE INCREASE IN NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT AND REMAIN AT RELIANT ON EUROPEAN SOURCES WHICH INCLUDE RUSSIA.

 WHILE KWASI KWARTENG MP,  THE MINISTER OF STATE  FOR ENERGY, AGREES THIS POSITION SUPPLIED BY HIS GOVERMENT EXPERTS, IT IS LITTLE WONDER SO MANY OF THE WELL KNOWN TIDAL STREAM DEVELOPERS ARE MOVING ABROAD OR FINISHING TOTALLY THIS FORM OF ENERGY RESEARCH DUE TO LACK OF SUPPORT OR FUNDS.

AFTER A MONTH THE MINISTER STILL REFUSES TO AGREE TO AN OPEN PUBLIC CHALLENGE FROM HALES ENERGY LTD.

Sunday, 6 October 2019

HALES WATER TURBINES CHALLENGE UK ENERGY MINISTER KWARTENG


     
ON FRIDAY 4TH OCTOBER 2019 ,  A DIRECTOR OF HALES WATER TURBINES LTD ATTENDED A DINNER ARRANGED BY THE BEXHILL AND BATTLE CONSERVATIVE ASSOCIATION, WHICH HAD  THE RT HON KWASI KWARTENG MP, MINISTER OF STATE FOR BUSINESS, ENERGY AND CLEAN GROWTH AS THE GUEST SPEAKER,

   THE REASON THE HWT DIRECTOR ATTENDED THIS DINNER WAS TO CHALLENGE THE MINISTER ON A STATEMENT HE MADE IN A REPLY LETTER TO A HALES ENERGY SUPPORTER IN SEPTEMBER 2019.

  THE MINISTER  HAD STATED IN THIS REPLY LETTER THAT

  " MY OFFICIALS AND I DO NOT FEEL THE DEVICE COULD EXTRACT SIGNIFICANT POWER FROM SLOW MOVING TIDAL CURRENTS ".

 AT THIS REFERRED TO THE HALES WATER TURBINE EARLIER IN THE LETTER  AND AS HALES WATER TURBINES IS ONE OF THE FEW TIDAL TURBINE DEVELOPERS WHO SPECIALISE IN DESIGNING TURBINES TO HARVEST ENERGY FROM LOW-VELOCITY WATER FLOWS, THE COMPANY FELT THAT MINISTER KWARTENG SHOULD BE CHALLENGED.     TO PUT HIS "CHAMPIONS" UP AGAIN OUR "CHAMPIONS" IN AN OPEN CONTEST WITH THE PUBLIC AND MEDIA ABLE TO FOLLOW THE DEBATE.

  HOWEVER, AS THE GOVERNMENT IS AT A VERY STRANGE PLACE AT THE MOMENT WITH BREXIT ISSUES, THE MINISTER SUGGESTED WE, HALES WATER TURBINES LTD  SHOULD CONTACT THE LOCAL MP WHO WAS IN ATTENDANCE AT THE DINNER ALSO, AND  PROCEED FROM THERE.

    HALES ENERGY'S POSITION IS THAT IF THE UK IS TO ADVANCE IT'S DRIVE TO CARBON FREE THEN IT HAS TO HARVEST THE 3,230 SQUARE KILOMETERS OF UK TERRITORIAL WATERS OF WHICH OVER FIFTY PERCENT HAVE LOW VELOCITY FLOWS OF 1.0 M/S, THE TARGET FLOW RATES.
   ALSO, THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION WAS STARTED IN THE MANCHESTER AREA OF THE UK IN 1780's WITH WATER WHEELS DRIVING THE FIRST SPINNING JENNY'S PRODUCED BY ARKWRIGHT, TWENTY YEARS BEFORE THE WATT STEAM ENGINES ARRIVED IN NUMBERS.
  ALSO THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HAS INVESTED   $ 6.7 MILLION DOLLARS SOLELY INTO RESEARCH OF LOW-VELOCITY FLOWS.

HEAL ENERGY HOPES THAT THE CHALLENGE WILL BE ACCEPTED. 
 

Tuesday, 6 August 2019

HALES WATER TURBINES DELAYS SALE OF TIDAL TURBINE TO IRAN



   Due to the ongoing tensions in the Straits of Hormuz area of Iran, Hales Water Turbines Ltd has needed to withdraw the recent pro-forma invoice to supply a 1MX1M Hales Tidal Stream Turbine  complete with venturi ducting and specialised test equipment until normal International Trading Standards are restored in the region.

  Hopefully this potential order will be restored in the near future so Iran is able to continue expanding  it's renewable energy development.


Paul Hales
Managing Director
Hales Water Turbines Ltd